Sommario Culture 2003



1 See Boyde (1971: 26-39) on different theories of "non-style".


2 Parks (1997: 18): "Il concetto che ispira i prossimi capitoli è il seguente: confrontando l'originale con la traduzione, e identificando i punti in cui la traduzione è risultata problematica, possiamo arrivare ad apprezzare meglio le qualità e le complessità dell'originale, e allo stesso tempo capire più a fondo quel fenomeno chiamato traduzione" (emphasis mine).


3 Ciaran Carson was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1948. After graduating from Queen's University, Belfast, he worked for the Arts Council of Northern Ireland until 1998. His collections of poetry include First Language: Poems (1993) and The Ballad of HMS Belfast: A Compendium of Belfast Poems (1999). His prose works include Fishing for Amber (1999) and Shamrock Tea (2001). He is also an accomplished musician, and author of Last Night's Fun: About Time, Food and Music (1996), a study of traditional Irish Music.

4 Cf. "Introduction" (xix): "Many Dante scholars are of the opinion that one should not translate at all, since traduttore traditore".

5 Cf. Wallace (1993: 250-5) on the tradition of an Irish, as opposed to English, Dante: "The claiming of Dante as poetic mentor and ancestor has obvious advantages for Irish poets writing in English. Irish Catholicism brings them (for better or for worse) closer to the urban, national and universalizing culture of Dante than any American or English poet can imagine. From the Irish vantage point, T. S. Eliot (despite his striving for the imperial and impersonal authority of Latinitas) may look parochial and eccentric in mutating from (in Heaney's words) 'the intellectual mysteryman from Missouri' to 'the English vestryman'. Aspects of Catholic dogma and practice that have long proved a stumbling block to the Anglican English offer rare expressive opportunities for Irish poets" (253-4).
6 Heaney, "Introduction" (xxiii-xxiv): "Sprung from an Irish nationalist background and educated at a Northern Irish Catholic school, I had learned the Irish language and lived within a cultural and ideological frame that regarded it as the language that I should by rights have been speaking but I had been robbed of (...). I tended to conceive of English and Irish as adversarial tongues, as either/or conditions rather than both/and, and this was an attitude that for a long time hampered the development of a more confident and creative way of dealing with the whole vexed question - the question, that is, of the relationship between nationality, language, history and literary tradition in Ireland".

7 Cf. again Heaney, "Introduction" (xxiv-xxv): "Luckily, I glimpsed the possibility of release from this kind of cultural determination early on, in my first arts year at Queen's University, Belfast, when we were lectured on the history of the English language by Professor John Braidwood. Braidwood could not help informing us, for example, that the word 'whiskey' is the same word as the Irish and Scots Gaelic word uisce , meaning water, and that the River Usk in Britain is therefore to some extent the River Uisce (or Whiskey); and so in my mind the stream was suddenly turned into a kind of linguistic river of rivers issuing from a pristine Celto-British Land of Cockaigne, a riverrun of Finnegans Wakespeak pouring out of the cleft rock of some prepolitical, prelapsarian, ur-philological Big Rock Candy Mountain - and all of this had a wonderfully sweetening effect upon me. The Irish/English duality, the Celtic/Saxon antithesis were momentarily collapsed and in the resulting etymological eddy a gleam of recognition flashed through the synapses and I glimpsed an elsewhere of potential that seemed at the same time to be a somewhere being remembered. The place on the language map where the Usk and the uisce and the whiskey coincided was definitely a place where the spirit might find a loophole, an escape route from what John Montague has called 'the partitioned intellect', away into some unpartitioned linguistic country, a region where one's language would not be simply a badge of ethnicity or a matter of cultural preference or an official imposition, but an entry into further language".

8 Cf. B. Reynolds (1987: 137): "The exhilaration was so great I was obliged to go out into the garden and run and leap about. I was rejoicing, not in my own cleverness, but in the English language".

9 Cf. M. Reynolds (2003, online): "Never before in English has the poem sounded less allegorical and more humane".

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